Kerumutan Forest Reserve is a Wildlife Reserve spanning over 1.3million hectares of lowland forests, and inhabited by hundreds of species of flora and fauna. The grand Kampar River runs along its border, lined with thick mangrove trees. The reserve’s boundaries are the Kampar River, the Indragiri River, the East Coast of Sumatera, and Jalan Lintas Timur Sumatera, the Cross East Sumatra Highway. The forest extends across two regencies, Pelalawan and Indragiri Hulu, in the Riau Province, in the central part of Sumatra.
Kerumutan’s carbon rich peat-lands are some of the largest remaining carbon reserves in the world, which make the forest a key defense against climate change. The area is composed of 75% peat and 25% dry marsh, with much of the area’s peat reaching deeper than 3 meters, making it illegal to clear under Indonesian law.
Kerumutan is well known as a haven to the critically endangered Sumatran Tigers, Sumatran Elephants and Orangutans, and is also habitat to Sunbears, Hornbills, Long-Tailed Macaque, White Egrets, Arowana Fish, Wild Ducks and Crocodiles, to name a few. The forest has also become a destination for a variety of migratory birds, and has been recognized as an Important Bird Area (IBA,) and an Endangered Bird Area (EBA.)
In addition to migrants from other parts of Sumatra, Java and the Malay coast, the area around the forest is inhabited by certain indigenous people, such as the Duanu Tribe and the Petalangan Tribe. Government census puts the population of the Kerumutan Forest Reserve at about 27,000 persons.
Kerumutan was established as part of the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Network in 2009. Biosphere Reserves are globally considered as sites used for the conservation of biological and cultural diversity and economic and social development between people and nature. These sites are also used to demonstrate innovative approaches to sustainable development, both locally and internationally.
The forest consists of three main types of soil, and is therefore divided into three areas: Kawasan Inti, or Core Region, covering about 93,000 hectares, Peat Protected Areas, currently covering 52,000 hectares, but which may potentially be expanded, and the Non-Core Regions, a group of preserved forest ecosystems, covering 1,178,000 hectares.
Despite being a National Reserve, much of this area has been designated towards industrial plantation development and the landscape is actively being drained and cleared.